Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes problem that affects eyes. It’s occurred by damaging the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).
At first, diabetic retinopathy may create no symptoms or only slight vision problems. Eventually, it can trigger blindness.
The situation can improve anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar is, unlike you will promote this eye complication.
What are the symptoms associated with Diabetic Retinopathy?
You might not notice symptoms in the primary stages of diabetic retinopathy. As the condition improves, diabetic retinopathy symptoms may include:
1) Spots floating in your vision
2) Blurred vision
3) Fluctuating vision
4) Impaired color vision
5) Dark or empty areas in your image
6) Vision loss
When you need to see a doctor?
Proper management of your diabetes is the only way to prevent vision loss. If you are suffering diabetes, consult your eye specialist for a yearly eye test with dilation — even if your vision looks fine. Pregnancy might worsen diabetic retinopathy, so if you are pregnant, your eye specialist may suggest an additional eye test throughout your pregnancy. Contact your eye specialist right away if your vision changes suddenly or becomes blurry, spotty, or hazy.
What are the causes of Diabetic Retinopathy?
Time to time, too much sugar in your blood can trigger the blockage of the tiny blood vessels that take care of the retina, cut out of its blood supply. As a result, the eye starts to grow new blood vessels. But these new blood vessels do not grow properly and can leak easily.
There are two types of diabetic retinopathy include
1) Early diabetic retinopathy: In this common form — known as nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) — new blood vessels do not grow (proliferating).
When you have NPDR, the blood vessels wall in your retina weaken. Tiny bulges (microaneurysms) protrude from the walls of the blood vessel of the smaller vessels, sometimes secreting fluid and blood into the retina. Larger retinal vessels can start to dilate and become irregular in diameter, as well. NPDR can promote from acute to chronic, as more blood vessels become blocked.
Nerve fibers in the retina may start to swelling. Sometimes the central part of the retina (macula) starts to swell (macular edema), a condition that needs treatment.
2) Advanced diabetic retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy can promote this more advanced type, called proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this type, injured blood vessels close off, creating the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the retina, and can leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fulfills the center of your eye (vitreous).
Eventually, scar tissue encouraged by the growth of new blood vessels may create the retina to disconnect from the back of your eye. If the new blood vessels obstacle with the normal flow of fluid out of sight, pressure may grow up in the eyeball. This can injure the nerve that carries images from your eye to your brain (optic nerve), resulting in glaucoma.
What are the risk factors associated with Diabetic Retinopathy?
Anyone who has diabetes can promote diabetic retinopathy. Risk of developing eye condition can produce as a result of:
1) Duration of diabetes — the longer you have diabetes, the higher your chance of promoting diabetic retinopathy
2) Uncontrolled of your blood sugar level
3) High blood pressure
4) High cholesterol
6) Tobacco use
7) Being African-American or Native American
What are the complications of Diabetic Retinopathy?
1) Vitreous hemorrhage: Vitreous hemorrhage by itself generally doesn’t cause permanent vision loss. The blood often removes from the eye within a few weeks or months. Unless your retina is injured, your vision may come back to its previous clarity.
2) Retinal detachment: The abnormal blood vessels connected with diabetic retinopathy encourage the growth of scar tissue, which can pull the retina away from the back of the eye. This may make spots floating in your vision, flashes of light, or severe vision loss.
3) Glaucoma: New blood vessels may build in the front part of your eye and interfere with the normal flow of fluid out of sight, creating pressure in the eye to grow up (glaucoma). This pressure can injure the nerve that carries images from your eye to your brain (optic nerve).
4) Blindness: Eventually, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or both can hit to complete vision loss.
What is the prevention mechanism of Diabetic Retinopathy?
1) Manage your diabetes: Make healthy eating and physical activity are part of your regular routine. Try to take at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise, like walking each week. Take oral diabetes medications or insulin as directed by the physician.
2) Monitor your blood sugar level: You may require to monitor and record your blood sugar level several times a day — more frequent measurements may be needed if you’re ill or under stress. Ask your doctor how often you require to test your blood sugar.
3) Consult your doctor about a glycosylated hemoglobin test: The glycosylated hemoglobin test, or hemoglobin A1C test, results in your average blood sugar level for the two- to three-month period before the test. For most people, the A1C goal is to be under 7 percent.
4) Stay your blood pressure and cholesterol under control: Eating healthy foods, regular exercise, and reducing excess weight can help. Sometimes medication is required, too.
5) If you smoke or use other types of tobacco, consult your doctor to help you quit. Smoking increases your risk of different diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy.
6) Pay attention to vision changes: Contact your eye specialist right away if you feel sudden vision changes or your vision becomes blurry, spotty, or hazy.